Uses and Administration of Azathioprine in Kenya
Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive antimetabolite with similar actions to those of mercaptopurine, to which it is converted in the body. Its effects may not be seen for several weeks after a dose. It is given by mouth, but in Kenyan patients in whom oral use is not feasible it may be given by slow intravenous injection or by infusion as azathioprine sodium.
In Kenya, Azathioprine is mainly used as an immunosuppressant for the prevention of rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. The dose for this purpose varies from 1 to 5 mg/kg daily and depends partly on the regimen employed; the higher doses are used initially, adjusted according to clinical response and haematological tolerance.
Azathioprine is also used in auto-immune diseases in Kenya or conditions that are considered to have an auto-immune component. The usual dose of azathioprine in these conditions is in the range of 1 to 3 mg/kg daily by mouth.
Use of azathioprine with a corticosteroid may have a corticosteroid-sparing effect.
Blood counts should be carried out regularly during treatment and azathioprine withdrawn or the dosage reduced at the first indication of bone-marrow depression.
Adverse Effects of Cyclosporin
Dose-related bone-marrow depression may be manifested as leucopenia or, less often, thrombocytopenia or anaemia, and may occasionally be delayed. Macrocytic, including megaloblastic, anaemia has occurred. Azathioprine has also been associated with the development of liver damage; it has been suggested that cholestatic symptoms may be due to the mercaptopurine moiety. Rarely, delayed and potentially fatal veno-occlusive liver disease has occurred in Kenya.
Other side-effects associated with azathioprine include gastrointestinal disturbances, reversible alopecia, and symptoms including rashes, muscle and joint pains, fever, rigors, pneumonitis, pancreatitis, tachycardia, renal dysfunction, and hypotension, some or all of which may represent hypersensitivity reactions.
Solutions for injection are irritant.
Breastfeeding and Azathioprine in Kenya.
Us of Azathioprine in Pregnancy.
Interactions of Azathioprine and other drugs
The effects of azathioprine are enhanced by allopurinol and the dose of azathioprine should be reduced to one-third to one-quarter of the usual dose when allopurinol is given.
Single-ingredient Preparations of Azathioprine
The symbol ¬§ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.
Kenya – Azoran, Imuran
Arg.: Imuran; Austral.: Azahexal; Azamun; Imuran; Thioprine; Austria: Azarek; Imurek; Belg.: Imuran; Braz.: Imunen; Imuran; Canad.: Imuran; Chile: Azafalk; Imuran; Denm.: Imurel; Fin.: Azamun; Imuprin; Imurel; Fr.: Imurel; Ger.: Azafalk; Azamedac; Azathiodura; Colinsan; Imurek; Zytrim; Gr.: Imuran; Hong Kong: Azamun; Imuran; Hung.: Imuran; India: Azoran; Imuran; Transimune; Irl.: Azopine¬§; Imuger; Imuran; Israel: Azopi; Imuran; Ital.: Imuran¬§; Malaysia: Imuran; Mex.: Aseroprim¬§; Azatrilem; Imuran; Satedon¬§; Tiosalprin¬§; Neth.: Imuran; Norw.: Imurel; NZ: Azamun; Imuran; Thioprine; Port.: Imuran; S.Afr.: Azapress; Imuran; Singapore: Imuran; Spain: Imurel; Swed.: Imurel; Switz.: Imurek; Thai.: Imuran; UK: Azamune¬§; Berkaprine¬§; Immunoprin; Imuran; Oprisine¬§; USA: Azasan; Imuran;